Memory cache control functions perform a cache control or mode setting.
The approach of cache control in T-Kernel are as follows:
Basically, even if application and device driver programs are created without paying attention to the existence of cache, the appropriate cache control should be automatically performed during their execution. Especially, in consideration of program portability, functions with strong dependency on system including cache are better to be handled separately from application programs wherever possible. For this reason, it is the policy of individual systems based on T-Kernel to make the T-Kernel itself control the cache automatically.
Specifically, T-Kernel sets the cache so that it is turned on for space like memory to store usual programs or data, and off for space such as I/O. For this reason, ordinary application programs do not need to explicitly call a function for cache control. Appropriate cache control is automatically performed even if cache control is not explicitly performed from the program.
However, the cache control by T-Kernel only (cache control by default setting) may not be enough for particular situations. For example, for I/O processing with DMA transfer or using memory space outside the kernel management, explicit cache control may be required. When executing a program by dynamically loading or generating (compiling) it, such cache control may be required so that data cache and instruction cache are appropriately synchronized. Memory cache control functions are assumed to be used in these situations.
|Difference from T-Kernel 1.0|
These functions were added in T-Kernel 2.0.
Sets the cache mode for a memory area. Specifically, performs the setting specified in
mode for the cache of the
len bytes memory area from the address
addr. The memory cache mode is set in page units.
mode := ( CM_OFF || CM_WB || CM_WT ) | [CM_CONT] CM_OFF Cache off CM_WB Cache on (write back) CM_WT Cache on (write through) CM_CONT Applies the cache setting only for the contiguous physical address space ... /* Implementation-dependent mode may be added */
Specify CM_OFF in
mode to flush (writes back) the cache, invalidate it, and turn it off.
Specify CM_WT in
mode to flush the cache and then set the write through cache mode.
Specify CM_WB in
mode to set the write back cache mode. In this case, whether or not to flush the cache is implementation-dependent.
Specify CM_CONT in
mode to apply the cache mode setting only for the contiguous physical address space area from
addr. If a non-contiguous physical address or a paged out area exists within the specified area that corresponds to the specified logical memory space area, the processing is aborted immediately before the non-contiguous physical address and the size of the processed area is returned. If CM_CONT is not specified, the cache is processed for the entire specified area and the size of the processed area is returned.
Some or all of the cache mode settings may be unusable depending on CPU or implementation. If an unusable mode is specified, E_NOSPT is returned without any processing.
len must be 1 or more. If a value of 0 or less is specified, the error code E_PAR is returned.
Because the cache mode setting is performed in page units, the start address of the page including
addr and subsequent addresses is taken as the setting target when
addr is not on the page border. Note that unintended cache access may occur to adjacent area when using this API. The page size is implementation-dependent and can be obtained using GetSpaceInfo.
When you want more detailed cache mode settings depending on the hardware configuration or the cache function of CPU, add and use an implementation-dependent
mode. For example, NORMAL CACHE OFF (Weakly Order), DEVICE CACHE OFF (Weakly Order), STRONG ORDER, or other cache mode may be specified.
When an unavailable
mode is specified, it is implementation-dependent whether to generate an error as E_NOSPT or E_PAR.
This API was added in T-Kernel 2.0.
In T-Kernel 1.0, CnvPhysicalAddr was supported to perform the DMA transfer using the physical address. This single API performs the following three operations: (a) convert the logical address to the physical address, (b) write back the cache as preprocessing of the DMA transfer, and (c) disable the cache of the DMA transfer buffer space. However, some of these three operations are often unnecessary and it may be more efficient to invoke only the necessary operations. In addition, some device drivers for other OSes assume that the operation (a), (b), or (c) are provided separately, and it is more convenient to invoke the operations (a), (b), or (c) separately when you want to port them to T-Kernel. Therefore, in T-Kernel 2.0, these three operations performed in CnvPhysicalAddr are separated into three new APIs to get address space information (GetSpaceInfo), set cache mode (SetCacheMode), and control cache (ControlCache).
Control the cache (flush or invalidate) of a memory area. Specifically, performs the control specified in
mode for the cache of the
len bytes memory area from the logical address
mode := (CC_FLUSH | CC_INVALIDATE) CC_FLUSH Flush (write back) cache CC_INVALIDATE Invalidate cache ... /* Implementation-dependent mode values may be added */
Both CC_FLUSH and CC_INVALIDATE can be set at the same time. This combination flushes the cache and then invalidates it.
If the processing is successful, the size of the processed space is returned. If a paged out area exists within the specified space, the processing is aborted immediately before it and the size of the processed space is returned.
A range that spans areas with different cache modes or attributes must not be specified. For example, a range that spans areas with cache on and cache off, task space and task shared space, or areas with different protection levels must not be specified. If such a range is specified, the subsequent correct behavior is not guaranteed.
The detail of the function varies depending on CPU, hardware, or implementation because the cache control depends heavily on the hardware. The cache control is basically applied on the specified area using the specified mode, but it may affect more area including the specified area. For example, there are the following cases:
Only the exactly specified range is not always controlled (flushed or invalidated). An area including the specified range is controlled, but it is also possible to flush or invalidate the cache for other areas (for example, entire memory) depending on CPU, hardware, or implementation.
Normally, no operation is performed when a cache-off area is specified. Even in this case, it is possible to flush or invalidate the cache for areas other than the specified range.(always flush the entire space, etc.)
No operation is performed in a system without cache.
Generally, the cache control is performed in cache line size units. For this reason, note that unintended cache access may occur to adjacent area when using this API. The cache line size is implementation-dependent and can be obtained using GetSpaceInfo.
This API was added in T-Kernel 2.0.